In the race to build a dosing computer hardware, silicone begins to shine

Silica based devices in development for use in dosing computers. The side electrodes shown in blue, red and green are used to define the dose point capability while the micromagnet at the top gives a magnetic field slope. The image was taken with an electron microscope and the colors were used for clarity. Credit: Adam Mills, Princeton University

Research conducted by Princeton University physicists is paving the way for the use of silicon technology in dosing computers, especially as dosing bits – the basic units of dosing computers. These studies promise to accelerate the use of silicon technology as a viable alternative to other dosing computing technologies, such as superconductors or solid ions.

In research published in the journal Scientific progress, Princeton physicists used two qubita silicone dispensers to achieve an unprecedented level of loyalty. Over 99 percent, this is the highest fidelity ever achieved for a two qubit semiconductor gate and is on par with the best results achieved with competitive technology. Fidelity, a measure of qubit’s ability to perform flawless operations, is a key factor in the development of a practical and efficient dose computing system.

Scientists around the world are trying to figure out which technologies – such as superconducting qubits, solid ions or silicon spin qubits, for example – can best be used as basic units of quantum mechanics. And no less important, researchers are exploring which technologies will have the ability to expand most effectively for commercial use.

“Silicon rotation is gaining momentum [in the field]”said Adam Mills, a graduate student at Princeton University’s Department of Physics and lead author of a recently published study.” This looks like a big year for silicon as a whole. “

Using a dual-point silicone device, Princeton scientists were able to capture two electrons and force them to communicate. The rotation state of each electron can be used as the qubit and the interaction of the electrons can complicate these qubits. This operation is crucial for dose calculations, and the research team, led by Jason Petta, Eugene Higgins’ professor of physics at Princeton, was able to perform this complication operation at a loyalty level that exceeded 99.8 percent.

Qubit, in its simplest terms, is a quantitative version of a computer bit, which is the smallest data unit in a computer. Like its classic counterpart, the qubit is encoded with information that can have values ​​of either one or zero. But unlike the bit, the qubit is able to utilize the concepts of quantum mechanics so that it can perform tasks that classical bits cannot.

“In qubit, you can code zeros and ones, but you can also have translations of those zeros and ones,” Mills said. This means that each qubit can be simultaneously zero and one. This concept, called superposition, is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics and what enables qubitum to perform actions that seem incredible and different. In practical terms, this gives the dosing computer a greater advantage over traditional computers, for example by participating in very large numbers or isolating the best solution to a problem.

The “rotation” in rotating quotas is the momentum of the electron. It’s a dose feature that appears as a tiny magnetic bipolar that can be used to transcribe information. A classic counterpart is a compass needle that has north and south poles and rotates to conform to the earth’s magnetic field. Quantum mechanically, the rotation of the electron can adapt to the magnetic field generated in the laboratory (rotation), or be set anti-parallel to the field (rotation down), or be in the quantum translation of rotation and downward rotation. Rotation is a property of the electron that is activated by silicon-based quantum equipment; Traditional computers, on the other hand, work by working with the negative charge of the electron.

Mills asserted that in general, silicon spin qubits have advantages over other qubit types. “The idea is that each system needs to be expanded to many qubits,” he said. “And now the other qubit systems have real physical limitations on flexibility. Size could be a real problem with these systems. There’s just so much space you can cram these things into.”

By comparison, silicon rotating qubits are made of single electrons and are very small.

“Our devices are just about 100 nanometers in diameter, while a traditional superconducting qubit is more than 300 microns in diameter, so if you want to create many on a chip, it will be difficult to use a superconducting approach,” said Petta. .

The other advantage of the silicon rotation, Petta added, is that today’s traditional electronics are based on silicon technology. “Our feeling is that if you really want to create the million or ten million qubit needed to do something practical, it will only happen in a solid-state system that can be scaled using the standard semiconductor manufacturing industry. “

However, it has been a challenge for scientists to operate rotating parts – like other types of female pieces – with great fidelity.

“One of the bottlenecks for qubit spin technology is that the two qubit gate ensures that very recently there has not been that much,” said Petta. “It has been well below 90 percent in most attempts.”

But it was a challenge that Petta and Mills and the research team felt could be achieved.

To perform the experiment, the scientists first had to capture one electron – no small task.

“We are capturing one electron, a very small particle, and we need to bring it into a certain area of ​​space and then let it dance,” said Petta.

To do this, Mills, Petta, and their colleagues had to build a “cage.” This was in the form of a thin semiconductor which is mainly made of silicone. On top of this, the team designed small electrodes, which create the electrostatic property used to attach the electron. Two of these cages put together, separated by a barrier or gate, formed the double dosing point.

“We have two rotations that sit in adjacent places next to each other,” said Petta. “By adjusting the voltage on these gates, we can push the electrons together for a moment and cause them to interact. This is called a two qubita gate.”

The interaction causes each qubit’s spin to evolve according to the state of the neighbor’s qubita spins, leading to a complication in the dosing system. The researchers were able to perform these two qubit interactions with a loyalty that exceeded 99 percent. To date, this is the highest guarantee for the two qubit gate that has been achieved so far in rotating qubits.

Petta said that the results of this experiment place this technology – silicon rotary heaters – on an equal footing with the best results achieved with other major competitive technologies. “This technology is on the rise,” he said, “and I think it’s only a matter of time before it goes beyond superconducting systems.

“Another important aspect of this article,” Petta added, “is that this is not just a demonstration of a high-security two-qubit gate, but this device does it all. the state preparation, the readout, the control of one qubita, the two qubita control – all with performance measures that exceed the threshold you need to make a larger system work. “

In addition to Mills and Petta, the job also included the efforts of Princeton graduates Charles Guinn and Mayer Feldman, as well as the University of Pennsylvania Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering Anthony Sigillito. Michael Gullans, Princeton University’s Department of Physics and Dosage Information and Computer Science Center at NIST / University of Maryland, and Erik Nielsen of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, also contributed to the article and research.

A three qubita entanglement state has been realized in a fully controllable array of rotating qubits in silicon

More information:
Adam R. Mills et al., Dual qubita silicone dose processor with over 99% operational reliability, Scientific progress (2022). DOI: 10.1126 / sciadv.abn5130

Provided by Princeton University

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